Hurry Hour / Feierabendverkehr in Passau

Rush Hour / Feierabendverkehr in Passau

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Quelle:
de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verkehrszeiten
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurry_hour

Aus den tageszeitlichen Schwankungen der Verkehrsnachfrage lassen sich im Allgemeinen drei Kategorien der Verkehrszeiten ableiten: Die Hauptverkehrszeit (HVZ), die Normalverkehrszeit bzw. Nebenverkehrszeit (NVZ) und die Schwachverkehrszeit (SVZ), abends auch Spätverkehrszeit genannt.
In der Hauptverkehrszeit (HVZ), umgangssprachlich auch als Spitzenverkehrszeit, Spitzenzeit, Stoßzeit oder Hurry Hour bezeichnet, dominieren vor allem die Fahrtzwecke Arbeit (Berufsverkehr) und Schule (Schülerverkehr). Im unmittelbaren Umkreis von Schulen und Kindergärten entsteht durch die Beförderung der Kinder zu Unterrichtsbeginn und das Abholen zum Unterrichtsende häufig die spezielle Sort der Schul-Rushhour. Das Verkehrsaufkommen ist in der Hauptverkehrszeit besonders stark, und es kommt oft zu Staus. Die Nachfrage gerade zur morgendlichen Hauptverkehrszeit ist als unelastisch zu betrachten, da Arbeits- und Schulbeginn meist festliegen. Die mittägliche Hauptverkehrszeit wird vom Schülerverkehr dominiert und betrifft hauptsächlich den öffentlichen Personennahverkehr (ÖPNV). Die Spitze fällt meistens gering aus, daher wird dieser Zeitraum nicht überall als Hauptverkehrszeit ausgewiesen. In der abendlichen Hauptverkehrszeit fällt die Verkehrsspitze in der Regel niedriger aus als morgens, da hier eine größere Verteilung besteht. Die Hauptverkehrszeit geht üblicherweise von six bis nine Uhr und von sixteen bis 19 Uhr. Im ländlichen Raum können sich Beginn und Ende um bis zu einer Stunde verlagern, da meist die Fahrtzeiten für die Pendler zwischen Land und Ballungsgebieten größer sind.

In der Hauptverkehrszeit bestehen im öffentlichen Personennahverkehr oft andere Takte (Fahrtenfolgen) oder Fahrzeiten, zuweilen wird auch fahrplanlos mit maximaler Fahrzeugfolge gefahren (so zum Beispiel in Paris und New York). Im Individualverkehr können in der Hauptverkehrszeit spezielle Ampelschaltungen, Tempolimits, Fahrstreifenaufteilungen und Einbahnstraßenregelungen gelten (so zum Beispiel in Hamburg die Sierichstraße: Sie ist jeweils Einbahnstraße in Lastrichtung, four bis twelve Uhr stadteinwärts, twelve bis four Uhr stadtauswärts).

In Ballungsräumen wird eine Ausdehnung der Hauptverkehrszeit beobachtet über den Morgen oder in den Abend, da die Verkehrsteilnehmer versuchen, dem täglichen Verkehrsstau zu entgehen. Auch machen sich die längeren Ladenöffnungszeiten bemerkbar.

Im Telekommunikationsbereich umfasst die Hauptverkehrszeit nach ITU-T-Empfehlung etwa vier Stunden am Tag ohne genauere Festlegung. Für Deutschland liegt sie werktags von 09:thirty Uhr bis eleven:thirty Uhr, und umfasst somit eine Zeitdauer von zwei Stunden.
Die Nebenverkehrszeit (NVZ) stellt die Verkehrszeit mit mittlerem bzw. normalem Verkehrsaufkommen bzw. Fahrgastaufkommen und entsprechenden Takten bzw. Fahrzeugeinsätzen im öffentlichen Personennahverkehr dar. Die Verkehrsnachfrage ist hier also geringer als zur Hauptverkehrszeit. Es dominieren der Lieferverkehr zusammen mit den Fahrtzwecken Besorgungen, Erledigungen und Einkauf. Die Nebenverkehrszeit beginnt in Ballungsgebieten wochentags um etwa nine Uhr und endet gegen sixteen Uhr, wobei dies in den meisten Fällen auch für den Samstag gilt. In Räumen mit ausgeprägtem Schülerverkehr wird die Nebenverkehrszeit zur mittäglichen Schülerheimfahrt unterbrochen.

Mitunter wird die NVZ auch als Normalverkehrszeit bezeichnet.
Die Verkehrsnachfrage in der Schwachverkehrszeit (SVZ) ist gering. Die Fahrtzwecke Freizeit, Erholung und Wohnen überwiegen. Die Schwachverkehrszeit beginnt an Wochentagen in der Regel nach 20 Uhr (durch die Verlängerung der Ladenöffnungszeiten oft erst nach 21 Uhr) und dauert bis zur morgendlichen Hauptverkehrszeit, sonnabends gilt sie außerhalb der Nebenverkehrszeit und an Sonn- und Feiertagen ganztägig. In Großstädten mit größeren Entfernungen und viel Touristenanteil wird sonn- und feiertags im öffentlichen Personennahverkehr während der Zeit von mittags bis abends wie zur Nebenverkehrszeit gefahren.

Innerhalb der Schwachverkehrszeit wird zwischen Früh- und Spätverkehr unterschieden. Ein Frühverkehr wird besonders an Sonn- und Feiertagen bis zum Beginn des normalen Tagesverkehrs angeboten. Ein besonderer Spätverkehr berücksichtigt die veränderte Verkehrsnachfrage am späten Abend (Kulturstandorte, Diskotheken and so on.). In kleineren Städten in Deutschland wird im Gegensatz zu solchen Städten in der Schweiz der reguläre Stadtbusverkehr an Sonntagen oft erst um die Mittagszeit aufgenommen, morgens fahren Anruf-Sammel-Taxen (AST).

Mitunter wird die SVZ auch nur als Spätverkehrszeit bezeichnet.
A hurry hour or peak hour is a section of the day throughout which site visitors congestion on roads and crowding on public transport is at its greatest. Usually, this transpires 2 times each weekday—once in the morning and the moment in the evening, the instances throughout when the most people commute. The term is frequently used for a period of time of peak congestion that may last for additional than just one hour.

The term is extremely wide, but frequently refers particularly to non-public car transportation site visitors, even when there is a massive quantity of cars on a road but not a massive variety of people, or if the quantity is typical but there is some disruption of speed. By analogy to vehicular site visitors, the term Internet hurry hour has been used to explain intervals of peak data network use, resulting in delays and slower shipping and delivery of data packets.
The title is in some cases a misnomer, as the peak period of time frequently lasts additional than just one hour and the “hurry” refers to quantity of site visitors, not rate of its flow. Usually, hurry hour is 6–10am (06:00–(10:00) and 4–8 pm (sixteen:00–20:00). Some destinations may experience another, fewer frantic, lunchtime hurry hour from noon to two pm (fourteen:00). Peak site visitors intervals may differ from town to town, from region to region, and seasonally.

The frequency of public transport provider is generally bigger in the hurry hour, and extended trains, or more substantial vehicles are frequently utilized. However, the enhance in potential is frequently fewer than the increased variety of travellers, because of to the limitations on readily available vehicles, team and, in the case of rail transport, track potential which includes system duration. The resulting crowding may power numerous travellers to stand, and others may be not able to board. If there is insufficient potential, this can make public transport fewer beautiful, primary to bigger automobile use and partly shifting the congestion to roads.

Transportation desire management, these kinds of as road pricing or a congestion charge, is intended to induce people to change their vacation timing to minimize congestion. In the same way, public transport fares may be bigger throughout peak intervals this is frequently introduced as an off peak discount for single fares. Time tickets or multi-trip tickets, offered at a discount, are frequently used in hurry hours by commuters, and may or may not reflect hurry hour fare differentials.

Staggered hours have been promoted as a implies of spreading desire throughout a extended time span, for case in point in Hurry Hour (1941 film) and by the Worldwide Labour Business.[
In Australia, Sydney, Brisbane and Melbourne and in New Zealand, Auckland and Christchurch are generally the most congested metropolitan areas in the morning 6–9am, and four:30–7pm. In Melbourne the Monash Freeway, which connects Melbourne’s suburban sprawl, to the town is generally greatly congested each and every morning and evening. In Perth, Thomas Street between Nicholson Street and Tonkin Freeway is pretty much generally congested because of to a massive quantity of roadworks on this extend.

In Sydney, congestion is managed by numerous implies which includes:

Public transport enhance the quantity of vehicles on the network

Buses enhance from four for each hour to twelve for each hour on the Metrobus network, other routes enhance minimal and express solutions
The most significant rail network in Sydney is significant rail and operate double deckers electric a number of unit trains that were introduced in 1972 with the CityRail L, R & S sets, these have allowed numerous additional travellers to board the trains compared to the nineteen fifties single degree ‘Red Rattlers’, and ‘Silver Ghosts’.
Time of day ticket price ranges enable educate commuters to board trains ahead of 6am or following 7pm at a cheaper rate on single or day return tickets
T Techniques the place designed in Sydney throughout 2008–2010, these are focused roads for buses, and join main employment centres with the suburban sprawl
ClearWays task makes it possible for for damaged down trains on the CityRail network to not outcome the running of trains on independent lines because of to constructing bypasses, and loop backs along with the present track.
Targeted traffic congestion is managed through the Targeted traffic Administration Centre by using a network of Closed Circuit TV’s, with operators equipped to adjust the timing, and comply with of site visitors alerts to lower wait around instances

Most main motorways have the means for Contra-flow to enable continuing flow of site visitors in case of a main accident
Transit Lanes are set up on most main arterial roads, these lanes have to have a minimal quantity of people in the automobile to be used, an case in point is T2 have to have the driver, and 1 passenger to generate in the lane
Dedicated bus lanes, the place buses, taxi, and non-public rental cars are only allowed to generate, this cuts down congestion with established down, and decide on up of travellers, and typical commuters
More mature motor strategies have been upgraded from two lanes in each and every route, to 3 lanes in each and every route
Motor way toll booths have been replaced with electronic toll devices (Hills M2 was the last to do so on 21 January 2012) time of day tolling is in use on the Sydney Harbour Bridge, and Sydney Harbour Tunnel to offer money incentives for commuters to stay out of the town in peak instances.
Brazil
In São Paulo, Brazil, each and every car is assigned a specific day of the 7 days in which it are unable to vacation the roads throughout hurry hour (7–10am and 5–8pm). The day of the 7 days for each and every car is derived from the last digit in the licence plate variety and the rule is enforced by site visitors police. This policy is aimed at reducing the variety of vehicles on the roads and encouraging the use of buses, subway and the city educate devices.

Colombia
In the pico y placa (peak and license plate) system in Bogotá, drivers of non-business cars are prevented from driving them throughout hurry hours on specific times of the 7 days. The vehicles barred each and every day are identified by the last digit of their license plate. The measure is required and these who split it are penalized. The digits banned each and every day are rotated each 12 months.[two]

Greece
In the cash town of Athens the hurry hours are generally 7–10am and 4–7pm. In the course of these intervals there is congestion in the Athens Mass Transit Program, most notably in buses and metro, as nicely as road site visitors. The six-automobile trains of Athens Metro carries pretty much 1.five million travellers throughout a regular 7 days day.
In Japan, the proportion of rail transportation is significant compared with the use of cars. Rail transport accounts for 27% of all passenger transport in Japan (other examples: Germany (7.7%), United Kingdom (six.four%), United States (.six%)).[four] In the Greater Tokyo Space and the Keihanshin metropolitan space there is a dense rail network and recurrent provider, which accounts for additional than fifty percent of the passenger transport most people in the space commute by public transport without the need of making use of cars.

Railways in the Greater Tokyo Space are severely congested. This is steadily staying enhanced by escalating rail potential and increasing Household Liner and bi-degree Green automobile (1st-class) solutions so that additional people can commute in comfort and ease without the need of extra cost. But it is continue to popular on main lines in Tokyo for additional than 3,000 travellers to be packed in a 10-automobile educate, and about one hundred,000 travellers to be transported for each hour (generally, the optimum potential of double-track commuter rail in Japan is 10-automobile trains at two-minute intervals), presumably just one of the most congested railways in the entire world.

In road transport, Expressways of Japan is operated by on a beneficiaries-spend principle which imposes highly-priced toll service fees, acquiring the outcome of reducing road site visitors. Electronic toll assortment (And so forth) is prevalent and bargains throughout minimal-site visitors intervals has been introduced to disperse site visitors above a wider period of time than the hurry hour. Street pricing is staying deemed but has not been introduced, partly since the expressway charge is now extremely significant.
In London, Peak Working day Travelcards enable vacation at all hours. Off-peak Working day Travelcards are 20-50% cheaper but are legitimate for vacation only following nine:30am and on weekends. This is an attempt to inspire commuters’ vacation on the London Underground, Docklands Light-weight Railway, buses, and trams outdoors of the crowded weekday morning peak. There is a comparable procedure on Transportation (Bus and Tyne and Use Metro) in the Newcastle on Tyne space. In London, congestion expenses are supposed to discourage driving 7am–6pm.

In Manchester, the Metrolink mild rail procedure delivers single, return and ‘Metromax’ daysaver tickets at a reduced value when they are obtained following nine:30am. This incentive is intended to entice travellers into averting the every day crowded situations at Metrolink stations throughout hurry hour.

For Younger People Railcard holders, the offer of just one-3rd off ticket price ranges is legitimate only following 10am (unless a minimal fare is paid out) or weekends. This restriction is lifted in July and August, the primary summer time holiday getaway year.[five]

For other Railcards, other limits use for case in point, the Spouse and children Railcard and Community Railcard are unable to be used for peak journeys in London and south-east England.
Attempts to take care of transportation desire throughout hurry hour intervals differ by point out and by metropolitan space. In some states, freeways have selected lanes that develop into HOV (High-Occupancy Motor vehicle aka automobile-pooling) only throughout hurry hours, even though open to all vehicles at other instances. In others, these kinds of as the Massachusetts part of I-93, vacation is permitted in the breakdown lane throughout this time. Many states, which includes Arizona, California, Georgia, Illinois, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin use ramp meters to regulate site visitors moving into freeways throughout hurry hour. Transportation officials in Colorado and Minnesota have included worth pricing to some city freeways all over Denver, the Twin Towns, and Seattle, charging motorists a bigger toll throughout peak intervals.

Transit businesses – these kinds of as Metro North serving New York City, WMATA serving Washington DC, and BART serving San Francisco – frequently charge riders a bigger fare (“peak fares”) for vacation throughout the morning and evening hurry hour.

Morning hurry hour instances can range from 6–10am in metropolitan areas like New York City. Some New York commuters consider to be on the road by at minimum 6am since site visitors will get significant between six:thirty and nine:30am. Many educate commuters depart early to get the finest seats on the trains, since by 7am the trains are packed with travellers standing or these who won’t be able to get on. Los Angeles, California has several hurry hours, which includes a midnight hurry for evening personnel. Bus and educate provider (these kinds of as Metrolink) in Los Angeles are minimal and are inclined to be underused, but their use is escalating. In the Chicago space people use Metra Trains, the ‘L’, and buses.

In Cleveland, Ohio or Northeast Ohio morning hurry hour is 7–9am, with the peak 7:30–8:30am. Simply because of Cleveland’s compact measurement, most people can be in Downtown Cleveland in 10–45 minutes. The Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority runs buses each fifty percent hour and some routes have non-quit freeway buses that operate throughout hurry hour.
There is also an afternoon hurry hour. For case in point, in the New York City space, the afternoon hurry hour can start out as early as 3 p.m. and last right until 7 p.m. Some people who reside in Connecticut but operate in New York frequently do not arrive home right until 7 p.m. or later. On the other hand, in a scaled-down town like Cleveland, the afternoon hurry hour can take put in a additional literal feeling these kinds of that significant site visitors congestion normally only occurs between five and six p.m. Ordinarily the RTA in Cleveland has an afternoon hurry hour timetable like the morning.

Targeted traffic heading into Philadelphia on Interstate ninety five throughout the morning hurry hour.
The town of Philadelphia is acknowledged for its extremely dangerous Schuylkill Expressway, significantly of which predates the 1956 introduction of the Interstate Freeway Program. Just one of the busiest highways in the country (and point out of Pennsylvania) and with the road staying really above potential, it has develop into notorious for its long-term congestion, specially throughout hurry hour. Hurry hour in Philadelphia is generally as early as 6am, with numerous in the Delaware Valley making use of the Schuylkill to reach Central Philadelphia and some of Philadelphia’s western suburbs. The rugged terrain, minimal riverfront place coated by the route and slender spans of bridges passing above the highway have mainly stymied later attempts to update or widen the highway. An typical 163,000 vehicles use the road every day in Philadelphia County, and an typical of 109,000 use the highway in Montgomery County. Its slender lane and remaining shoulder configuration, remaining lane entrances and exits (nicknamed “merge or die”), popular design activity and typically congested situations have led to numerous incidents, significant accidents and fatalities, primary to the highway’s humorous nickname of the “Surekill Expressway” or in even further embellishment, “Surekill Distressway”.

Boston, Massachusetts, and the more substantial Greater Boston region, is notorious for site visitors congestion because of to the region’s significant populace density, outmoded highway procedure, and the significant focus of organizations with massive places of work positioned along main expressways and city loops (which includes Route 128, MassPike, I-93, I-495). In spite of the region’s compact character, inbound site visitors turns into extremely significant on all expressways as early as 6am on a regular weekday morning, earning an inbound generate from the suburbs as long as seventy five minutes. On the other hand, recent advancements introduced about as section of the notorious Major Dig task have briefly enhanced expressway site visitors in Boston’s town limitations.

Towns these kinds of as Atlanta, Houston, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Washington DC, to title a couple, are acknowledged for acquiring some of the worst site visitors in the country. Los Angeles also has the greatest quantity of time invested in congestion, followed by Honolulu and Washington D.C..

Posted by !!! Portray with Light-weight !!! #schauer on 2014-eleven-18 seventeen:54:58

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